EU Civil Protection

Civil Protection in our Countries

Safety in your Country: your National Civil Protection

ESTONIA [edit]

GREECE [edit]

In 1995, Civil Protection was institutionally established by the foundation of the General Secretariat for Civil Protection (GSCP) at the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Prior to 1995, the Armed Forces had a major role in dealing with emergencies from disasters.

Civil Protection is a very important institution in a modern and civilized society emphasizing the importance of self-reliance of citizens and communities. Given that Civil Protection is always ready to protect citizens and plans to protect their life and property, it is certain that this way it can prevent millions of deaths, as the population of a country is valuable and contributes to its economic and social support. People can rebuild a country after its destruction and, therefore, it is important for the country's financial security to protect its citizens.

In Greece, Civil Protection is based on a General Plan with the pass word "Xenocratis", which is the formation of a system of effective response to catastrophic phenomena for the protection of the life, health and property of the citizens, as well as the protection of the natural environment. "Xenocratis" was prepared by the GSCP with the Ministerial Decree 1299/2003 (Government Gazette 423 B / 10-4-2003) and revised with additional 3384/2006 (Government Gazette 776 / 28-6-06) approving the Special Plan "Management of Human Loss".

'Project "Xenocratis"


• determines types of disasters and the corresponding terms of civil protection. • defines roles and designs instructions given to Ministries, Regions, NA, Municipalities, Communities. • clarifies that all projects are approved by the GSCP.

Determines: • involved services & institutions. • instruments that manage and coordinate operational forces at all levels.

Provides essential data for: • risk assessment. • labeling vulnerable spaces. • developing specific plans for each risk.

Provides guidelines for: • strategies and tactics. • proper organization and equipment of services and business philosophy. • timely mobilization, activation, management and coordination of human resources and resources. • calculating logistics to address problems of both the operational forces and the affected citizens.

Organizes: • the establishment of a system of communication and information between all the involved services and factors involved in crisis management. This is a basic plan of action which entrusts the development of risk-specific projects to the ministries in charge. Work is already in progress on the creation of working groups in ministries, with the initiative of the General Secretariat for Civil Protection, in order to upgrade specific projects according to the risk involved.

Through specific projects drawn up by the working groups, more specific directives or design requirements may be given to the Regions and the Prefectures to prepare for them.

Until the completion of the process of drawing up and approving specific projects, the plans already approved shall apply.

The state of civil protection mobilization is divided into:

• Civil protection preparedness status, based on documented risk, including the scaling up of preparedness and civil protection means, in the specialization of preparedness planning. • State of Civil Protection Emergency, including the situation associated with a specific disaster that requires: • special coordination by the General Secretariat for Civil Protection of the forces and the means of services and bodies acting at central, regional and local level, and • mobilizing forces and resources beyond what is available under normal conditions.

The forces and means of civil protection include:

• specialized civil protection officers at central, regional and local level who are entrusted with supervising the design and implementation of civil protection plans, programmes and measures and coordinating the necessary actions. • all government departments, local government agencies and utilities that are responsible at the operational level for individual civil protection actions and, in particular, for disaster preparedness and response (such as Fire Brigade, Coast Guard, Hellenic Police Force, National Center for Emergency Assistance, Armed Forces, Organization of Antiseismic Planning & Protection, services of the Region, Prefectural and Local Authorities, DEI, OTE, Y. DAP, DEPA, HNM). • voluntary civil protection organizations, as well as specialized civil protection volunteers at central, regional and local level, who are part of the Civil Protection Secretariat's planning and undertake support for prevention and rehabilitation projects and actions, as well as disaster preparedness and response actions.

ITALY [edit]

The "civil protection" is the set of activities put in place to protect the integrity of life, properties, settlements and the environment from damages or risk of damages arising from disasters: risk prediction and prevention, rescue to affected populations, contrast and overcome of the emergency and mitigation of risks.

Civil protection is not a task assigned to a sole administration, but is a function belonging to a complex system: the National Service of Civil Protection. Established by Law n. 225 of 1992, the National Service has as its components the central government of the State, the Regions and Autonomous Provinces, Provinces, municipalities and mountain communities.

The National Fire Department, the Armed Forces, the Police, the National Forestry Corps, the scientific community, the Italian Red Cross, the structures of the National Health Service, voluntary organizations, the National Mountain and Alpine Rescue Corps form the operating structures.

The National Service operates at central, regional and local level, in compliance with the principle of subsidiarity. The local context of our country, subject to a variety of risks, makes necessary a civil protection system that, in every area, ensures the presence of human resources, facilities and operational capabilities able to intervene quickly in case of emergency, but also to operate for prevention and, as far as possible, predict potential disasters.

The first response to the emergency, whatever the nature and extent of the event, needs to be guaranteed at the local level, from the municipal structure, which is the closest institution to the citizen. The first head of civil protection in each municipality is, therefore, the Mayor. But when the event cannot be met by the means available to the municipality, the higher levels are activated through an integrated and coordinated action: the Province, the Prefecture, the Region, to the involvement of the State in the event of a national emergency.

The strength of such a complex system of competences is the guidance and coordination entrusted to the President of the Council of Ministers, which makes use of the Civil Protection Department

Civil Protection Department

The Civil Protection Department has been grounded in the offices of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers since 1982.

It has a guiding role, in agreement with regional and local governments, of projects and activities for the prevention, forecast and monitoring of risks and intervention procedures that are common to the whole system.

The Department coordinates the response to natural disasters, catastrophes or other events - events of C type - that intensity and extent, should be faced with extraordinary powers and means.

Moreover, also in agreement with the regional governments and local authorities, working in the drafting of legislation on the prevention of risks and regulatory measures needed to cope with disasters and minimize damage to people and property.

It promotes drills, national and international training projects and activities that contribute to spreading the culture of civil protection. Knowing risks affecting your territory is a fundamental tool of self-protection. Find out what you need to do before, during and after an emergency. You can see the website


The National Civil Protection Authority (ANPC) is a central company, of the direct administration of the State, with administrative and financial capacity and with its own patrimony.

It was born in 2007, and resulted from the merger of the National Civil Protection Service, National Fire Service and National Specialized Commission of Forest Fire, and later the National Council of Civil Emergency Planning (CNPCE)

ANPC pursues, in accordance with Decree-Law no. 73/2013 of May 31, as amended by Decree-Law no. 163/2014 of October 31, with attributions in the scope of forecasting, risk management and planning emergency, protection and rescue activities, firefighters' activities, civil protection resources, and the application and enforcement of applicable standards within the scope of their duties.


ANPC has developed over time activities that lead to the knowledge of seismic risk and its mitigation, namely, the study of seismic risk in more vulnerable regions, participation in missions in the national territory and abroad for the purpose of studying and gathering lessons about the effects of seismic action on buildings and on the response of relief and information and awareness actions of the population and lectures in public and private institutions.

In relation to floods, the preventive action in portugal, is carried out in two components, the forecast, since there is continuous monitoring of the levels of Portuguese and Spanish reservoirs and of the meteorological conditions, which makes possible the anticipation of mitigation actions, and monitoring, . This last component is strongly hydrological, being the responsibility of the System of Monitoring and Alert of Water Resources (SVARH)

Also, in drought situations, together with the Portuguese Environment Agency and the Drought Prevention and Protection System, ANPC has a forecasting role, which makes it possible to anticipate control actions, and at a time when resources are depleted these are responsible for providing water to populations with alternative means.

For more information, visit the website

REUNION [edit]

ROMANIA [edit]

National Civil Protection The certificate of birth and operation of civil protection, under the international humanitarian law, is the First Geneva Protocol of 8 June 1977, an additional instrument to the 1949 Conventions. With the Decree No 224 of 11 May 1990, Romania ratified the additional First and Second Protocols of the Geneva Convention of 12th August 1949, which provided the framework for the improvement of the civil protection activity. On the 8th of November 2004, the Parliament of Romania passed the Law on civil protection, harmonising thus the legal provision in the field with the newly passed legislation on the development of the National System for Emergency Management. Since the 15th of December 2004, the civil protection missions are carried out by the components of the National System for Emergency Management. The structure of the National Systems is as follows: committees for emergency situations; General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations; Community public services for emergency situations; operational centres and operative centres for emergency situations; the commander of the operation. The committees for emergency situations are: the National Committee for Emergency Situations; the committees for emergency situations of the ministries and other central public bodies; the committee for emergency situations of the Municipality of Bucharest; the county committee for emergency situations; the local committee for emergency situations. The emergency situations committees are inter-body organisms to support the management of emergencies. Coordination, control, and expert technical assistance in civil protection is secured at the central level, by the Ministry of Administration and the Interior Affairs, via the General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations, and locally, by the County Inspectorates and the Inspectorate of the Municipality of Bucharest for Emergency Situations. The General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations is the regulating authority in the matter. Government control in this field is performed via regulations, approvals, authorisations, certifications, and checking, by the Preventive Inspection, within the General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations, by the Preventive inspections within the county inspectorates and the Inspectorate of the Municipality of Bucharest, respectively, in order to adopt a uniform application of the legal provisions throughout Romania. Civil Protection Department Civil protection is a component of the national security system and represents an integrated ensemble of specific activities, measures and tasks pertaining to organisation, logistics, operations, having a humanitarian and informative character with respect to the public; planned, organised, and carried out to prevent and limit the hazard of the occurrence of disasters, protecting the public, goods, and the environment from the negative impact and effects thereof, protecting from armed conflicts and operatively removing the effects thereof, and securing the conditions necessary to the survival of the victims. The main duties of the civil protection are as follows: a) to identify and manage the types of hazards likely to generate natural and technological disasters on the Romanian territory

b) to collect, process, store, examine, and analyse data and information pertaining to civil protection; c) to inform the public and to enhance preparedness thereof with respect to the hazards they are exposed, self-protective measures to be taken, protective means and equipment provided, obligations to be undertaken, and behaviour during such emergency; d) to organise and secure operations and optimal intervention capacity to provide services for civil protection and emergency and of the other specialised entities with responsibilities in the area; e) to inform public authorities and alert the public in civil protection situations; f) to protect the material goods of the public, goods listed under heritage, archive values, as well as the environment from the effects of disasters or armed conflicts; g) to ensure surviving conditions for the public under civil protection contingency circumstances; h) to organise and perform operative interventions in order to reduce loss of lives, to limit and remove the effects of natural calamities and of other civil protection and emergency situations; i) during military conflicts, to clear and neutralise the territory from the unexploded ammunition; j) to participate in specific international missions; k) to secure specific financial, logistic, and material reserves.

TURKEY [edit]

Civil Defense Services in Turkey, was first issued in 1928 with the “Instruction for the Defense and Protection of the Weather Front Against the Front”. In 1938, “Passive Protection Law 350 numbered 3502 was put into force and mobilization directorates were established in the provinces and civil defense services were carried out. Issued in 1958 and 12 Civil Defense Law 7 no. 7126, which was put into force on 28 February 1959, it was later changed to the “Civil Defense Law ile by Decree Law 586. Kanun Law on Organization and Duties of Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency sayılı numbered 5902 was put into force on 25/05/2009, General Directorate of Civil Defense and provincial / district civil defense directorates were abolished. With this Law, the Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency and provincial disaster and emergency directorates were established. Civil defense services, Civil Defense Department and Provincial directorates of disaster and emergency.

According to Law No. 5902, the duties of the Civil Defense Department are as follows:

  • To plan, implement and supervise civil defense services in public institutions and private organizations,
  • To plan and carry out all kinds of unarmed protective and rescue measures, emergency rescue and first aid activities,To identify the civil resources needed for mobilization and war preparations,
  • To make efforts to support the civil defense efforts by the public and to protect the morale of the public,
  • To determine the precautions to be taken against the dangers of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear substances and to ensure coordination between the relevant ministries, public and private institutions and organizations,To perform similar tasks to be assigned by the President.

1. Taking into consideration the staff availability of our schools and institutions, They will install the services specified in the plan. Personnel availability is not sufficient to install the services specified in the plan, they will establish an Emergency Rescue Service that will assume the duties of all services. 2. Attached and Plans are exemplary and will be prepared. The plans will be adapted to the Format, taking into account the characteristics of the school / institution structure. (In case of doubts about the Civil Defense Plan, the civil defense unit of the provincial directorate of national education will be utilized). 3. The original copies of the plans shall not be used for photocopy. 4. Guidance, Chief Guidance and Chief Guidance information of the Civil Defense Plan, Section I. Provided from Provincial Disaster and Emergency Directorates or provincial national education directorate. 5. In the Civil Defense Plans, services other than the Control Center and Headquarters will be provided to the students over the age of 15 as team personnel. 6. Plans There will be no manual corrections to be written on the computer. 7. IV. At the end of the chapter or annexed to the Plan, a protocol of mutual assistance and cooperation signed and sealed by the parties must be included.

8. The plan annex should include fire instruction, shelter instruction, floor and environmental sketches. 9. Shelter / shelter, fire equipment and meeting places must be clearly indicated on the sketch by drawing the environment and building floor sketches in a simple manner. 10. Personnel assigned to one service shall not be assigned to another service. 11. The page number will be given to the plan and each page will be initialed separately and the number of pages on the last page will be signed by the school / institution director to be written. 12. Due to the confidential confidentiality of the plans, the utmost care will be given to the protection and preservation of the plans and the SECRET stamp will be printed on the upper and lower middle sections of the pages. 13. The chairman and members included in the plan must have signatures. 14. Institutions with fewer than 30 personnel may choose to reduce the number of personnel employed in services. 15. Location Map It can be prepared from the satellite image to be extracted from the website or drawn by hand.